Irrigation (Automatic & Manual)
An automation of irrigation systems has several positive effects. Once installed, the water distribution on fields or small-scale gardens is easier and does not have to be
permanently controlled by an operator. There are several solutions to design automated irrigation systems. Modern big-scale systems allow big areas to be managed by one operator only. Sprinkler, drip or subsurface drip irrigation systems require pumps and some high tech-components and if used for large surfaces skilled operators are also required. Extremely high-tech solutions also exist using GIS and satellites to automatically measure the water needs content of each crop parcel and optimize the irrigation system. But automation of irrigation can sometimes also be done with simple, mechanical appliances: with clay pot or porous capsule irrigation networks or bottle irrigation
Manual irrigation systems are very simple, but effective methods for making water available to crops. Manual irrigation systems are easy to handle and there is no need for technical equipment. But it is important that they are constructed correctly to avoid water loss and crop shortfall. The systems allow for high self-help compatibility and have low initial capital cost. They can be used in almost every area, but they are especially adapted for arid areas where evaporation rates are high.